Virginia Memory, Library of Virginia
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COLLECTIONS BY TOPIC

Our digital collections below are organized by topic. "About" pages that contain provenance, scope and content, and search tips are available on most search pages. Be sure also to consult the research guides to these collections, as well as indexes to related collections, found on the Library of Virginia Web site.

Older digital collections are available via our online catalog. Newer digital collections are available in our digital asset management system, DigiTool.

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Virginia History and Culture

  • Virginia Chamber of Commerce Photograph Collection icon

    Virginia Chamber of Commerce Photograph Collection

    Primarily covering the years 1922–1972, the VCC collection documents a wide range of subjects, including bridges and dams; the cotton, peanut, textile, commercial fishing, and tobacco industries; farming and harvests; the Blue Ridge Parkway and the Skyline Drive; hunting and fishing; and numerous local festivals.

  • 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection icon

    1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection

    This VCC collection, displayed in the Virginia Room at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City, contains more than 3,000 photographs representing twelve aspects of Virginia life: scenic tours; recreation; historic homes; culture; history; colonial archaeology; scenery and natural wonders; physiography; agriculture; education; government and the people; and industry, commerce, and transportation.

  • Virginia Historical Inventory icon

    Virginia Historical Inventory

    photographs, maps, and detailed reports documenting the architectural, cultural, and family histories of thousands of 18th– and 19th–century buildings in communities across Virginia. This collection was originally assembled by the Virginia Writers' Project, part of the depression-era Works Progress Administration.

  • Broadside Collection icon

    Broadside Collection

    Broadsides are ephemeral material, usually intended for one-time use and printed on one side of one sheet of paper. They often include a date and were used to advertise or illustrate an event, meeting, product, or sale. Wills, political statements, proclamations, and theatre bills are also found in this collection. The Library of Virginia collection, which includes more than 1,700 broadsides dating from the eighteenth century to the present, provides a treasure trove of information to researchers about the activities and daily community affairs of Virginians, as well as insights into political, racial, and spiritual inclinations of their time.

  • Tantilla Gardens Poster Collection icon

    Tantilla Gardens Poster Collection

    The Tantilla Gardens poster collection consists of 27 unique pieces of promotional art from a variety of musical performances that took place at this Richmond venue between 1933 and 1969. From soul to the psychedelia, orchestral to country and western, these posters evoke fond memories of very good times for those who remember "The South's Most Beautiful Ballroom."

  • CW 150 Legacy Project icon

    CW 150 Legacy Project

    This project, initiated in cooperation with the Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission, is creating a digital archive of original sources of information about the Civil War in Virginia that still remain in private hands. Letters, diaries, and other material identified through this project will help put a human face on the period that transformed the United States. Citizens across the commonwealth will be invited to share their family treasures with the project so that their items will be available to future researchers. Images will be added to the project web site as they are scanned and described by Library of Virginia archivists.

  • Hopewell Virginia Locals of United Mine Workers of America Photograph Collection icon

    Hopewell Virginia Locals of United Mine Workers of America Photograph Collection

    Spanning nearly three decades, this collection includes candid images documenting the growth of an industrial city. This online collection is a small sample of the nearly 4000 negatives and photographs available for research at the Library of Virginia. The prints and photographs in this collection show union officers and proceedings, strikers in action, contract-signing ceremonies, parades and marching bands, racially segregated recreational activities, Labor Day festivities, earth-breaking ceremonies, and construction and completion of Hopewell's Union Hall. Negatives from Hercules Powder Company (ca. 1947--1957) make up the largest measure of this collection and include images of workplace accidents and safety efforts, staff photos, operations and machinery, social clubs, notable visitors, and special events.

  • War of 1812 Bicentennial Collection icon

    War of 1812 Bicentennial Collection

    In commemoration of the bicentennial of the War of 1812, librarians and archivists at the Library of Virginia make available digitally select items relevant to Virginia's and the nation's participation in "America's Second War for Independence." We've put together a combination of unique, rare, and fascinating items that highlight our wealth of resources, including maps, family letters, state government records, local militia and court records, prints and photographs, and newspapers.

  • Governor Mark R. Warner  Administration Photograph Collection icon

    Governor Mark R. Warner Administration Photograph Collection

    This collection documents the administration of Governor Mark R. Warner (2002-2006). The photographs are a sample of the entire collection transferred to the Library of Virginia in January 2006. As part of the records of the governor's Press Office, the photographs document major accomplishments of the administration; school group and organization visits to the capitol; bill signings; events centered on economic development, education, and transportation; the governor's travels throughout the state, and myriad other topics. Understanding of events is enhanced with other Press Office records that may be viewed in the Archives & Manuscripts Reading Room at the Library of Virginia.

  • Rare Book Digital Collection icon

    Rare Book Digital Collection

    This collection of text and images features entire works, as well as selected title pages, frontispieces, illustrations, plats, maps, and designs from the pages of the Rare Book Collection. The Rare Book Collection houses 51,700 titles focused on the history and formation of Virginia, early Virginia imprints, and also includes other diverse topics that span the 16th through the 21st centuries such as agriculture, architecture, botany, customs and trades, genealogy, law, mathematics, natural history, theology, and the history of our state and the nation.

  • WPA Historical Houses Drawings Digital Collections icon

    WPA Historical Houses Drawings Digital Collections

    The WPA Historic Houses Drawings Collection includes 140 drawings in pen-and-ink, pencil, and watercolor of houses, courthouses, churches, mill houses, and taverns, representing 39 Virginia counties. From 1932 to 1937, the Virginia State Commission on Conservation and Development's Division of History and Archaeology received funds from the Works Progress Administration's (WPA) Federal Art Project to commission five artists, including Rex M. Allyn, Edward A. Darby, Dorothea A. Farrington, E. Neville Harnsberger, and Elsie J. Mistie, to create drawings for a publication on historic Virginia shrines. Although the drawings were never published, likely due to diminishing funds, the collection presents an important record of Virginia architecture, both traditional and vernacular, and includes images of structures that are no longer standing today. The photographs from which the drawings were based are part of the WPA Photograph and Negative Collection at the Library of Virginia.

  • Jefferson Executive Papers Digital Collection, 1779-1781 icon

    Jefferson Executive Papers Digital Collection, 1779-1781

    Funding received from the Save America's Treasures program allowed the Library of Virginia to conserve, enhance description, and digitize the original letters contained in the Executive Papers of Governor Thomas Jefferson, 1779-1781. The correspondence primarily relates to the Revolutionary War, Indian affairs, the Articles of Confederation, the settlement of the boundary between Virginia & Pennsylvania, arms, ammunition, and the militia.

Biographical and Genealogical

  • WPA Life Histories Collection icon

    WPA Life Histories Collection

    This collections provides a fully–searchable index with images to approximately 1,350 life histories, social–ethnic studies, and youth studies plus more than 50 interviews with former slaves which were created by the staff of the Virginia Writers' Project.

  • S. Bassett French Biographical Sketches icon

    S. Bassett French Biographical Sketches

    This collection of digital images provides biographical information on almost 9,000 men, compiled by French between 1890 and 1897.

Maps and Architecture

  • Charles F. Gillette Virginia Photograph Collection icon

    Charles F. Gillette Virginia Photograph Collection

    This collection of photographs highlights Virginia houses, estates, gardens, and other landscape design projects created by the famed landscape architect Charles Gillette.

  • Civil War Map Project icon

    Civil War Map Project

    Nearly 200 Civil War cartographic items from the Library's vast map collection originally digitized as part of a cooperative project between the Library, the Library of Congress, and the Virginia Historical Society.

  • Mutual Assurance Society (Richmond/Henrico County, Virginia, Policies) icon

    Mutual Assurance Society (Richmond/Henrico County, Virginia, Policies)

    indexes insurance policies issued by the Mutual Assurance Society between 1796 and 1867 for buildings in Richmond and Henrico County. Document images available.

  • Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey icon

    Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey

    An online search engine providing interactive access to maps, photographs, and detailed written survey reports documenting the architecture of central Richmond, Virginia, in 1965. Report, photograph, and map images are available online.

  • School Buildings Service Photographs icon

    School Buildings Service Photographs

    a visual record of hundreds of elementary and secondary school buildings across Virginia from the 1920s to the 1970s.

  • Alan M. Voorhees Map Collection icon

    Alan M. Voorhees Map Collection

    The Alan M. Voorhees Map Collection extends from the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle through the U.S. Civil War period with the bulk of the collection consisting of pre–20th century maps. Included are maps made by Schedel, Ptolemy, deBry, Mercator, and Smith among many others. In a variety of map formats, such as nautical charts and views, the collection focuses primarily on the Chesapeake Bay area and the development of Virginia within the larger geographical and historical contexts of Europe and America. Virginia Memory hosts 67 of the approximate 72 titles housed in both the Library's Map Collection and Special Collections. Many of these maps were part of the exhibit Maps, Charts, & Atlases: The Alan M. Voorhees Collection at the Library of Virginia held from March 1, 2004–July 3, 2004 for the inaugural Voorhees lecture.

  • Carneal & Johnston Negative Collection icon

    Carneal & Johnston Negative Collection

    The Carneal & Johnston digital collection consists of 215 images created from glass-plate negatives documenting some of the many designs created by the Richmond architectural firm, including interior and exterior views of various commercial buildings and private residences designed by the firm. William Leigh Carneal Jr. (1881-1958) and James Markam Ambler Johnston (1885-1974) began their firm about 1908 after spending a year working independently while sharing office space. The firm went on to become one of the most prolific and long-established architectural practices in the state and by 1950 had helped to mold the architectural environment of central Virginia, especially Richmond. Responsible for more than 1,300 buildings, Carneal and Johnston practiced in a wide range of project types, from the mundane to the monumental. Some of the most notable structures represented in the collection include First Virginia Regiment Armory (1913), the Richmond Dairy (1914), the Colonial Theater (1919-1920), the Virginia State Office Building (1922-1923), and various structures on the campuses of Richmond College (now the University of Richmond) and Virginia Military Institute. The collection, purchased at auction by the Library of Virginia Foundation in 2009, complements some of the Library's several Carneal & Johnston architectural drawings and plans related to state government buildings.

  • Fry–Jefferson Maps, Surveys and Derivatives icon

    Fry–Jefferson Maps, Surveys and Derivatives

    This collection features 39 images from the 2008-2009 Library exhibition "From Williamsburg to Wills's Creek: The Fry–Jefferson Map," highlighting the sources and sequels of the Fry–Jefferson map, created by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson in 1755. Included in the collection are notes, maps and surveys by John Senex, George Washington, John Mayo, Herman Moll, and Guy Broadwater.

  • Public Buildings and Grounds Collection icon

    Public Buildings and Grounds Collection

    The Buildings and Grounds Collection consists of selected images from the Public Buildings and Grounds series of local government records. This series often includes reports, financial, contractual, and architectural documents related to the design, construction, condition, and alteration of local buildings like courthouses, jails, clerk's offices, and other public structures. This documentary evidence offer insight into what was literally the structure of government for most Virginians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the local court.

  • Board of Public Works icon

    Board of Public Works

    The records of the Board of Public Works are rich in the details of the development of Virginia's internal improvements during the nineteenth century. Few collections in other archival institutions are comparable. Over the years, researchers have used the records for many purposes. Maps, plans, and correspondence relating to canals have aided in the restoration of canal locks and other surviving canal features. Records relating to turnpikes and railroads assisted in resolving right-of-way questions. Field survey notes help identify changes in topography and aid in the location of archaeological sites. Surprising as it may seem, sketches made in the 1830s and 1850s of county boundaries are still consulted today.View images of drawings, maps, and plans online now!

County and City Research

  • Chancery Records Index icon

    Chancery Records Index

    The Chancery Records Index (CRI) is a result of archival processing and indexing projects overseen by the Library of Virginia (LVA) and funded, in part, by the Virginia Circuit Court Records Preservation Program (CCRP). Each of Virginia's circuit courts created chancery records that contain considerable historical and genealogical information. Because the records rely so heavily on testimony from witnesses, they offer a unique glimpse into the lives of Virginians from the early 18th century through the First World War.  More information »

  • More Information on Chancery Records IndexClose [X]

    The Chancery Records Index (CRI) is a result of archival processing and indexing projects overseen by the Library of Virginia (LVA) and funded, in part, by the Virginia Circuit Court Records Preservation Program (CCRP). Each of Virginia's circuit courts created chancery records that contain considerable historical and genealogical information. Because the records rely so heavily on testimony from witnesses, they offer a unique glimpse into the lives of Virginians from the early 18th century through the First World War.

    The original court papers are flat-filed, indexed, and conserved using a set of standards developed by the LVA. Since the tri-folded records are often in poor condition, special attention is paid to preparing them for digital reformatting. This laborious process is undertaken so that the best quality images can be captured in one effort. The valuable original records are then retired to secure storage.

    The reformatted images—whether digital scans or microfilm—can be viewed at the Library of Virginia, at the circuit court clerk's office, or, in the case of digital images, from any internet connected computer. The indexed but-not-yet-reformatted original records in the Library's care can be viewed in the Archives Research Room prior to reformatting. During reformatting, some or all of the original records may be unavailable for viewing; however, the full index will remain available for research purposes. Information is added to the CRI in such instances to alert researchers regarding a collection's availability.

    There are over 233,000 cases indexed in the database and nearly 8 million images of chancery causes available online.

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  • Cohabitation Registers icon

    Cohabitation Registers

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded. Though recorded at the local level, registers may not exist for every Virginia county. Images of certain cohabitation registers are available here, along with accompanying full-text searchable transcriptions (pdf) of each. The Library is pleased to make registers in our collection or those that we can borrow available for public use as soon as we are able to digitize and index them. Check back often for new additions.  More information »

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Public Buildings and Grounds Collection icon

    Public Buildings and Grounds Collection

    The Buildings and Grounds Collection consists of selected images from the Public Buildings and Grounds series of local government records. This series often includes reports, financial, contractual, and architectural documents related to the design, construction, condition, and alteration of local buildings like courthouses, jails, clerk's offices, and other public structures. This documentary evidence offer insight into what was literally the structure of government for most Virginians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the local court.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Lost Records Localities Digital Collection icon

    Lost Records Localities Digital Collection

    This collection consists of images for a wide variety of court records found as part of chancery and other locality records-processing projects. The images are of surviving records from localities where most records are no longer extant. The original record is scanned and the images are filed together in an artificial online collection—the Lost Records Localities Digital Collection. Please check periodically as this is an ongoing project.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Legislative Petitions Digital Collection icon

    Legislative Petitions Digital Collection

    Petitions to the General Assembly were the primary catalyst for legislation in the Commonwealth from 1776 until 1865. Public improvements, military claims, divorce, manumission of slaves, division of counties, incorporation of towns, religious freedom, and taxation were just some of the concerns expressed in these petitions

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

African American Resources

  • Cohabitation Registers icon

    Cohabitation Registers

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded. Though recorded at the local level, registers may not exist for every Virginia county. Images of certain cohabitation registers are available here, along with accompanying full-text searchable transcriptions (pdf) of each. The Library is pleased to make registers in our collection or those that we can borrow available for public use as soon as we are able to digitize and index them. Check back often for new additions.  More information »

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Hopewell Virginia Locals of United Mine Workers of America Photograph Collection icon

    Hopewell Virginia Locals of United Mine Workers of America Photograph Collection

    Spanning nearly three decades, this collection includes candid images documenting the growth of an industrial city. This online collection is a small sample of the nearly 4000 negatives and photographs available for research at the Library of Virginia. The prints and photographs in this collection show union officers and proceedings, strikers in action, contract-signing ceremonies, parades and marching bands, racially segregated recreational activities, Labor Day festivities, earth-breaking ceremonies, and construction and completion of Hopewell's Union Hall. Negatives from Hercules Powder Company (ca. 1947--1957) make up the largest measure of this collection and include images of workplace accidents and safety efforts, staff photos, operations and machinery, social clubs, notable visitors, and special events.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

Military Service

  • Confederate Disability Applications and Receipts icon

    Confederate Disability Applications and Receipts

    applications to the Board of Commissioners on Artificial Limbs from injured soldiers

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Confederate Pension Rolls, Veterans and Widows icon

    Confederate Pension Rolls, Veterans and Widows

    searchable database of pension applications and amended applications filed by resident Virginia Confederate veterans and their widows.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Revolutionary War Bounty Warrants icon

    Revolutionary War Bounty Warrants

    accumulated documents intended to verify dates of service of officers, soldiers, and sailors in a Virginia or Continental army or naval unit during the Revolutionary War.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Revolutionary War Rejected Claims icon

    Revolutionary War Rejected Claims

    index and images of the documents of applicants who had military service of insufficient length to qualify for the bounty land requested.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions icon

    Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions

    index to and scanned images of the surviving records that veterans and their widows presented to the county courts to certify their eligibility for pension.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Robert E. Lee Camp Confederate Soldiers' Home Applications for Admission icon

    Robert E. Lee Camp Confederate Soldiers' Home Applications for Admission

    Index and images of applications to the benevolent society established in 1883 in order to aid needy former Confederate veterans in Richmond, Virginia.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • World War I History Commission Questionnaires icon

    World War I History Commission Questionnaires

    surveys completed by returning soldiers, or their surviving kin

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Dunmore's War (Virginia Payrolls/Public Service Claims, 1775) icon

    Dunmore's War (Virginia Payrolls/Public Service Claims, 1775)

    Index and images of the payrolls and muster rolls from Dunmore's War, a conflict between the Colony of Virginia and the Native Americans of the Ohio Valley

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • U.S. Army Signal Corps Photograph Collection icon

    U.S. Army Signal Corps Photograph Collection

    Photographs from the Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation series, 1942-1946, taken by Army Signal Corps photographers assigned to the port historian's office. The nearly 3,500 photographs depict the arrival and departure of U.S. military personnel and equipment, the preparation and loading of war materials, civilian employees, Red Cross workers, wounded personnel, and German and Italian prisoners of war.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • War of 1812 Bicentennial Collection icon

    War of 1812 Bicentennial Collection

    In commemoration of the bicentennial of the War of 1812, librarians and archivists at the Library of Virginia make available digitally select items relevant to Virginia's and the nation's participation in "America's Second War for Independence." We've put together a combination of unique, rare, and fascinating items that highlight our wealth of resources, including maps, family letters, state government records, local militia and court records, prints and photographs, and newspapers.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

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  • Lewis and Clark :

    Lewis and Clark : "We send from this place with dispatches."

    Enjoy an online sample of newspaper accounts created in honor of the 200th anniversary of the Lewis and Clark expedition.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Born in the Wake of Freedom: John Mitchell, Jr., and the <em>Richmond Planet</em> icon

    Born in the Wake of Freedom: John Mitchell, Jr., and the Richmond Planet

    John Mitchell, Jr., founder of the Richmond Planet was a man of enormous stature and complexity. These web exhibition images provide a context in which to understand Mitchell's life and work better, as well as his contributions to the social and political life of Virginia's African-American Community. The images and accompanying text also provide viewers a glimpse into the world of newspaper publishing as America entered the twentieth century.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • R. M. S. Titanic: 100 Years Later icon

    R. M. S. Titanic: 100 Years Later

    The story of the Titanic -- its building, as well as its destruction -- is a great human story with cultural significance, enduring appeal, and old and new controversy. This web exhibition highlights how newspapers told the story, showing the pathos of 1500+ casualties, the heroism and/or cowardice among the passengers and crew, the very real questions relating to cause and effect, and the continuing aftermath.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • The Engraver's Art: Newspaper Mastheads icon

    The Engraver's Art: Newspaper Mastheads

    There was once an artistry in the creation of a newspaper's masthead. Whether they came from an original name, an artistic image, or a declaration of intention, newspaper mastheads (and titles) were much more vibrant than today's rather staid, computer and color enhanced examples. The Virginia Newspaper Project offers a small selection of the more interesting mastheads we have uncovered to date. Many of the linked images below are fairly large, but well worth the wait.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

Historic Virginia Government

  • Virginia Colonial Records Project icon

    Virginia Colonial Records Project

    fully-searchable index to almost 15,000 reports that survey and describe documents relating to colonial Virginia history that are housed in repositories in Great Britain and other European countries. Survey report images are available online with references to microfilm reels for the original documents.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Governor's Letters Received, June 1776 - November 1784 icon

    Governor's Letters Received, June 1776 - November 1784

    a calendar of the manuscript collection of letters and other documents received in the Governor's Office of Virginia first six governors.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Early Virginia Religious Petitions, 1774-1802 icon

    Early Virginia Religious Petitions, 1774-1802

    images of 423 petitions submitted to the Virginia legislature between 1774 and 1802 from more than eighty counties and cities. A joint project with the Library of Congress

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Government Reform Commission Reports icon

    Government Reform Commission Reports

    Governor Robert McDonnell's executive order on January 16, 2010, created the Commission on Government Reform and Restructuring, which he charged with streamlining state government and making it more efficient. Previous Virginia governors have also explored government effectiveness and efficiency. In the late 1920s Governor Harry F. Byrd Sr. carried out changes that set the state's modern template for government. In 1990 Governor Gerald Baliles's Commission recommended ways to improve government operations, in 1994 George Allen's Blue Ribbon Strike Force investigated similar ground, and in 2002 former Governor L. Douglas Wilder's Commission on Efficiency and Effectiveness outlined numerous suggestions for consolidation and improved efficiency to Governor Mark R. Warner.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Executive Orders Digital Collection icon

    Executive Orders Digital Collection

    The collection contains all Executive Order and Executive Directives from the Office of the Governor of Virginia, beginning with Mark Warner's administration.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Legislative Petitions Digital Collection icon

    Legislative Petitions Digital Collection

    Petitions to the General Assembly were the primary catalyst for legislation in the Commonwealth from 1776 until 1865. Public improvements, military claims, divorce, manumission of slaves, division of counties, incorporation of towns, religious freedom, and taxation were just some of the concerns expressed in these petitions

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Governor Mark R. Warner  Administration Photograph Collection icon

    Governor Mark R. Warner Administration Photograph Collection

    This collection documents the administration of Governor Mark R. Warner (2002-2006). The photographs are a sample of the entire collection transferred to the Library of Virginia in January 2006. As part of the records of the governor's Press Office, the photographs document major accomplishments of the administration; school group and organization visits to the capitol; bill signings; events centered on economic development, education, and transportation; the governor's travels throughout the state, and myriad other topics. Understanding of events is enhanced with other Press Office records that may be viewed in the Archives & Manuscripts Reading Room at the Library of Virginia.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Kaine Email Project @ LVA icon

    Kaine Email Project @ LVA

    The Kaine Email Project @ LVA makes accessible the email records of the administration of Tim Kaine, Governor of Virginia from 2006-2010. Researchers can browse and search the inboxes of the Executive Office, cabinet secretaries, and their staffs. The collection is full-text searchable and provides important background information useful to anyone researching the challenges of modern government and society in early 21st century Virginia.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Jefferson Executive Papers Digital Collection, 1779-1781 icon

    Jefferson Executive Papers Digital Collection, 1779-1781

    Funding received from the Save America's Treasures program allowed the Library of Virginia to conserve, enhance description, and digitize the original letters contained in the Executive Papers of Governor Thomas Jefferson, 1779-1781. The correspondence primarily relates to the Revolutionary War, Indian affairs, the Articles of Confederation, the settlement of the boundary between Virginia & Pennsylvania, arms, ammunition, and the militia.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

Web Archiving

  • Capital Square Renovation Collection icon

    Capital Square Renovation Collection

    This collection preserves the web sites that document the 2004-2007 renovation of the Capitol building designed by Thomas Jefferson in 1785, and the associated Capitol Square complex in Richmond, Virginia.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Governor Timothy Kaine Administration Collection icon

    Governor Timothy Kaine Administration Collection

    The Web archive of the Administration of Governor Tim Kaine (2006—2010) contains archived versions of Web sites for the Governor's Office, his initiative sites, and the sites of his cabinet secretaries. Also included are the related sites for the First Lady (Anne Holton), as well as the Lt. Governor (Bill Bolling), and Attorney General (Bob McDonnell and William C. Mims), two statewide officials elected in the same cycle as Governor Kaine.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Jamestown 2007 Commemoration Collection icon

    Jamestown 2007 Commemoration Collection

    In 2007, the Commonwealth of Virginia will commemorate the 400th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. This collection documents the web presence of this commemoration across and beyond Virginia.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Tragedy at Virginia Tech icon

    Tragedy at Virginia Tech

    This collection captures Virginia Government Web sites related to the shooting at Virginia Tech on Monday, April 16, 2007. This collection includes audio excerpts from press conferences held on Tuesday, April 17, audio excerpts from the Convocation ceremony held on Tuesday, April 17, and a video stream of the entire Convocation. Also included is a list of the victims.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Virginia Organization Web Archive icon

    Virginia Organization Web Archive

    In addition to the papers of individuals, families, businesses, churches, and other entities, the Private Papers section of the Library of Virginia also collects materials from Virginia organizations. Hoping to capture the online presence as well as the more traditional records of these groups, the Library has begun the process of archiving Web sites of organizations that are already represented in our collection. These include social, civic, service, cultural, and other groups that may be either entirely Virginia-based, or the Virginia branches of larger organizations.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Virginia State Government Web Sites Collection icon

    Virginia State Government Web Sites Collection

    This collection preserves the web sites of Virginia state agencies.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Virginia Statewide Election Campaign Web Sites icon

    Virginia Statewide Election Campaign Web Sites

    This collection was created to capture the websites of candidates for the Virginia race for U.S. Senate 2006 November. Included are the websites for George Allen (Republican Party), Gail Parker (Independent Green Party), and Jim Webb (Democratic Party). The websites were crawled daily throughout the last three weeks of the election.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Virginia's Political Landscape, 2007 icon

    Virginia's Political Landscape, 2007

    This collection preserves the web sites that document Virginia's 2007 General Assembly elections (primary and general). All 140 members of the Virginia General Assembly are up for election in 2007. Included are Web sites for candidates for the House of Delegates and Senate, the state Virginia Democratic and Republican Party Web sites, as well as Web sites for local and regional Democratic and Republican party committees. Also included are Web sites for Virginia's Congressional delegation (official and private), former Virginia Governor James S. Gilmore's 2008 Presidential campaign Web site, former Governor Mark R. Warner's PAC Web site, and two political "sunshine" Web sites: Virginia Public Access Project and Richmond Sunlight.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Virginia's Political Landscape, 2008 icon

    Virginia's Political Landscape, 2008

    This collection preserves the Web sites that document Virginia's 2008 Congressional elections (primary and general). All 11 members of Virginia's Congressional Delegation as well as one U.S. Senate seat are up for election in 2008. Included are campaign Web sites for candidates for the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate, official sites for Virginia's Congressional delegation, the state Virginia Democratic and Republican Party Web sites, as well as Web sites for members of the Virginia General Assembly. Also included are Web sites for the Political Action Committees of Governor Tim Kaine and former Governor George Allen, the personal Web sites of Lt. Governor Bill Bolling, Attorney General Bob McDonnell and former Governor (and U.S. Senate candidate) James S. Gilmore, and two political "sunshine" Web sites: Virginia Public Access Project and Richmond Sunlight. The general election is 4 November 2008.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Virginia's Political Landscape, 2009 icon

    Virginia's Political Landscape, 2009

    This collection preserves the Web sites that document Virginia's 2009 statewide and Virginia House of Delegates elections (primary and general). All 3 statewide offices (Governor, Lt. Governor and Attorney General) as well as all 100 members of the Virginia House of Delegates are up for election in 2009. Included are campaign Web sites for candidates for Governor, Lt. Governor, Attorney General and the House of Delegates, official sites for Virginia's Congressional delegation, the state Virginia Democratic and Republican Party Web sites, as well as Web sites for members of the Virginia General Assembly. Also included are Web sites for the Political Action Committees of Governor Tim Kaine and former Governor George Allen, and two political "sunshine" Web sites: Virginia Public Access Project and Richmond Sunlight. The primary election is 9 June 2009 and the general election is 3 November 2009.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Virginia's Political Landscape, 2005 icon

    Virginia's Political Landscape, 2005

    This collection preserves the web sites that document Virginia's November 2005 state-wide election. Included are former governor Mark Warner's web site, the first lady's web site, the Virginia Democratic and Republican Party web sites, as well as sites for the candidates for the offices of Governor, Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General. Also included are blogs related to the election, web sites of cabinet secretaries, and sites for Warner administration initiatives.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Governor Mark R. Warner Administration Web Archive icon

    Governor Mark R. Warner Administration Web Archive

    The Web archive of the Administration of Governor Mark R. Warner (2002-2006) contains archived versions of Web sites for the Governor's Office, his initiative sites, and the sites of his cabinet secretaries. Also included are the related sites for the First Lady, as well as the Lieutenant Governor and the Attorney General, two officials elected in the same cycle as Governor Warner.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Virginia's Political Landscape, 2010 icon

    Virginia's Political Landscape, 2010

    This collection preserves the Web sites that document Virginia's 2010 Congressional elections (primary and general). All 11 members of Virginia's Congressional Delegation were up for election in 2010. Included are campaign Web sites for candidates for the U.S. House of Representatives, official sites for Virginia's Congressional delegation, the state Virginia Democratic and Republican Party Web sites, as well as Web sites for members of the Virginia General Assembly.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Governor Robert F. McDonnell Administration Web Archive icon

    Governor Robert F. McDonnell Administration Web Archive

    The Web archive of the Administration of Governor Robert F. McDonnell (2010-2014) contains archived versions of Web sites for the Governor's Office, his initiative sites, the sites of his cabinet secretaries, and the Governor's YouTube channel. Also included are the related sites for the First Lady (Maureen McDonnell), as well as the Lt. Governor (Bill Bolling), and Attorney General (Ken Cuccinelli), two statewide officials elected in the same cycle as Governor McDonnell.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

Photograph collections

  • Virginia Chamber of Commerce Photograph Collection icon

    Virginia Chamber of Commerce Photograph Collection

    Primarily covering the years 1922–1972, the VCC collection documents a wide range of subjects, including bridges and dams; the cotton, peanut, textile, commercial fishing, and tobacco industries; farming and harvests; the Blue Ridge Parkway and the Skyline Drive; hunting and fishing; and numerous local festivals.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection icon

    1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection

    This VCC collection, displayed in the Virginia Room at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City, contains more than 3,000 photographs representing twelve aspects of Virginia life: scenic tours; recreation; historic homes; culture; history; colonial archaeology; scenery and natural wonders; physiography; agriculture; education; government and the people; and industry, commerce, and transportation.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey icon

    Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey

    An online search engine providing interactive access to maps, photographs, and detailed written survey reports documenting the architecture of central Richmond, Virginia, in 1965. Report, photograph, and map images are available online.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • School Buildings Service Photographs icon

    School Buildings Service Photographs

    a visual record of hundreds of elementary and secondary school buildings across Virginia from the 1920s to the 1970s.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Virginia Historical Inventory icon

    Virginia Historical Inventory

    photographs, maps, and detailed reports documenting the architectural, cultural, and family histories of thousands of 18th– and 19th–century buildings in communities across Virginia. This collection was originally assembled by the Virginia Writers' Project, part of the depression-era Works Progress Administration.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • U.S. Army Signal Corps Photograph Collection icon

    U.S. Army Signal Corps Photograph Collection

    Photographs from the Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation series, 1942-1946, taken by Army Signal Corps photographers assigned to the port historian's office. The nearly 3,500 photographs depict the arrival and departure of U.S. military personnel and equipment, the preparation and loading of war materials, civilian employees, Red Cross workers, wounded personnel, and German and Italian prisoners of war.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Callahan Photograph Collection, Eastern Shore Public Library icon

    Callahan Photograph Collection, Eastern Shore Public Library

    Photographs from the Doran S. Callahan collection depicting scenes from the counties of Accomack and Northampton. Subjects include homes, churches, gravestones, important landmarks, courthouses, and other buildings. 85 photographs taken between 1895 and 1900.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Fairfax County Public Library Photograph Collection icon

    Fairfax County Public Library Photograph Collection

    Included here are approximately 190 photographs which are part of the Henry H. Douglas Collection of Washington & Old Dominion Railroad Photographs, 300 photographs which illustrated the Fairfax County Extension Service Annual Reports issued between 1922 and 1948, and seven photographs originally published in an article about Joseph Beard in the Washington Star Magazine, April 26, 1953.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Hamblin Studio Photograph Collection, Suffolk Public Library icon

    Hamblin Studio Photograph Collection, Suffolk Public Library

    1,300 photographs taken by four photographers associated with the Hamblin Studio 1910-1975. Subjects include business, commerce, manufacturing, government, education, religion, social and cultural activities, and African American community life.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Hampton Public Library/City of Hampton Historical Collection Photographs icon

    Hampton Public Library/City of Hampton Historical Collection Photographs

    1,400 photographs from the Christopher E. Cheyne collection depicting businesses, the seafood industry, the hotel and resort industry, prominent Hampton families, Confederate veterans, and other subjects; taken between 1894 and 1945.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Harry C. Mann Photograph Collection icon

    Harry C. Mann Photograph Collection

    A fully-searchable index to the Harry C. Mann Photograph Collection of glass plate negatives located in the Picture Collection at the Library of Virginia

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Newport News Public Library Photograph Collection icon

    Newport News Public Library Photograph Collection

    two photographic collections — more than 40 photographs of the Hotel Warwick taken before 1925 which are part of the Old Dominion Land Company Records and more than 230 photographs of Hilton Village taken during the construction phase in 1918 and 1919.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Portsmouth Public Library Photograph Collection icon

    Portsmouth Public Library Photograph Collection

    two photographic collections; more than 800 photographs of the Olde Towne historic area depicting homes, churches, streets, commercial structures, and other historic sites and the Lee F. Rodgers collection of approximately 1,500 photographs primarily of African American subjects.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Radford Public Library Photograph Collection icon

    Radford Public Library Photograph Collection

    Photographs published in The Radford Record Album in 1915. More than 225 photographs depicting residences, commercial and manufacturing buildings, churches, educational institutions, monuments, railroads, community activities, individuals, and views of the New River.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Roanoke County Public Library Local History Photographs icon

    Roanoke County Public Library Local History Photographs

    Roanoke County Local History Photograph Collection located in the Local History Room at the Hollins Branch of the Roanoke County Public Library.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Tazewell County Public Library Photographs icon

    Tazewell County Public Library Photographs

    Photographs originally published in a series of volumes by the Tazewell County Historical Society. Subjects include civic, agricultural, commercial, industrial, educational, social, and religious topics. The nearly 3,900 photographs taken between the late 19th century and the 1960s also include many individuals, families, and groups.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Waynesboro Public Library Photographs icon

    Waynesboro Public Library Photographs

    photographs and post cards depicting a variety of subjects from the cities of Waynesboro, Staunton, and Harrisonburg and the surrounding counties of Augusta, Rockingham, and Rockbridge. More than 1,500 photographs and approximately 380 post cards.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Adolph B. Rice Photograph Collection icon

    Adolph B. Rice Photograph Collection

    The Adolph B. Rice Studio Collection constitutes a unique photographic record of life in Richmond, Virginia, from 1949 to 1961. The Library offers here digital versions of over 400 of the 16,000 images from Rice's commercial studio, covering studio portraits, aerial views, advertising shots for local department stores, and local religious and educational events. This collection is also available on Flickr. If you're familiar with the people, places, and events covered in the Rice Collection, you can add comments and metadata that will help us identify this content even better.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Stereograph Collection icon

    Stereograph Collection

    Stereoscopic views were a popular 19th century recreational pastime that enabled photographs to be viewed in three dimensions. What appear to be two identical images adjacent to each other on a cardboard support are actually slightly different. When viewed through the lenses of a stereoscope, they "merge" to form a single 3-D image. The Library of Virginia's Stereograph Collection contains 318 images from many prominent and well-known photographers from the early 1860s to the early 20th century.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Carneal & Johnston Negative Collection icon

    Carneal & Johnston Negative Collection

    The Carneal & Johnston digital collection consists of 215 images created from glass-plate negatives documenting some of the many designs created by the Richmond architectural firm, including interior and exterior views of various commercial buildings and private residences designed by the firm. William Leigh Carneal Jr. (1881-1958) and James Markam Ambler Johnston (1885-1974) began their firm about 1908 after spending a year working independently while sharing office space. The firm went on to become one of the most prolific and long-established architectural practices in the state and by 1950 had helped to mold the architectural environment of central Virginia, especially Richmond. Responsible for more than 1,300 buildings, Carneal and Johnston practiced in a wide range of project types, from the mundane to the monumental. Some of the most notable structures represented in the collection include First Virginia Regiment Armory (1913), the Richmond Dairy (1914), the Colonial Theater (1919-1920), the Virginia State Office Building (1922-1923), and various structures on the campuses of Richmond College (now the University of Richmond) and Virginia Military Institute. The collection, purchased at auction by the Library of Virginia Foundation in 2009, complements some of the Library's several Carneal & Johnston architectural drawings and plans related to state government buildings.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Fairfax County Public Library Historical Photographs icon

    Fairfax County Public Library Historical Photographs

    The Library of Virginia is pleased to host a new sampling of photographs from the Virginia Room at the Fairfax County Public Library. This collection includes digitized images depicting every day life in the county over a good part of the late 19th and most of the 20th centuries. The photographs and postcard images cover activities & events from all across the county, including the Civil War, and show farms, businesses, schools, churches, and much more. Browse through the entire collection or search to refine your results.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Hopewell Virginia Locals of United Mine Workers of America Photograph Collection icon

    Hopewell Virginia Locals of United Mine Workers of America Photograph Collection

    Spanning nearly three decades, this collection includes candid images documenting the growth of an industrial city. This online collection is a small sample of the nearly 4000 negatives and photographs available for research at the Library of Virginia. The prints and photographs in this collection show union officers and proceedings, strikers in action, contract-signing ceremonies, parades and marching bands, racially segregated recreational activities, Labor Day festivities, earth-breaking ceremonies, and construction and completion of Hopewell's Union Hall. Negatives from Hercules Powder Company (ca. 1947--1957) make up the largest measure of this collection and include images of workplace accidents and safety efforts, staff photos, operations and machinery, social clubs, notable visitors, and special events.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • Governor Mark R. Warner  Administration Photograph Collection icon

    Governor Mark R. Warner Administration Photograph Collection

    This collection documents the administration of Governor Mark R. Warner (2002-2006). The photographs are a sample of the entire collection transferred to the Library of Virginia in January 2006. As part of the records of the governor's Press Office, the photographs document major accomplishments of the administration; school group and organization visits to the capitol; bill signings; events centered on economic development, education, and transportation; the governor's travels throughout the state, and myriad other topics. Understanding of events is enhanced with other Press Office records that may be viewed in the Archives & Manuscripts Reading Room at the Library of Virginia.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

  • World War II Poster Collection icon

    World War II Poster Collection

    During World War II, the United States government mobilized the best ad-men available to create posters that would speak to the nation. The themes portrayed played on deep levels of fear, pride, duty, and victory. In order to beat the enemy, citizens were told through posters that they needed to work hard and sacrifice at home. To that end, the ad-men succeeded. People felt as though their efforts at home were truly helping "the boys" overseas. The Library of Virginia's World War II Poster Collection consists of over 400 original posters.

  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.

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  • More Information on Cohabitation RegistersClose [X]

    Cohabitation registers are among the most important genealogical resources for African-Americans attempting to connect their family lines back through the oftentimes murky past to their enslaved ancestors. The registers date from 1866 and provide a snapshot in time for the individuals recorded therein and a wealth of information that may otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to uncover. The documents may offer clues for how to proceed with an individual's history that otherwise may have remained hidden even from the 1870 federal census takers four years later. Historians are also interested in the registers because of what the registers might say about a particular community of people at a time when great changes had come about as a result of the Civil War and the end of slavery.

    A cohabitation register, or as it is properly titled, Register of Colored Persons…cohabiting together as Husband and Wife on 27th February 1866, was the legal vehicle by which former slaves legitimized both their marriages and their children. The information about an individual person contained in a cohabitation register is literally priceless as it is often the first time that a former slave appeared officially in the public record and because of the extensive kinds of information that the register recorded.

    Prior to the close of the Civil War, Virginia law provided no legal recognition for slave marriages. On 27 February 1866, the General Assembly enacted a law that entitled formerly enslaved people who had married during slavery to all of the rights and privileges as if they had been duly married by law and declared all of their children legitimate, whether born before or after the passage of this act. Additionally, the federal Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (commonly called the Freedmen's Bureau) directed the assistant superintendents of the states to order the county clerks to make a registry of such persons cohabiting. These registers were either deposited with the local clerks of court or were retained in the Freedmen's Bureau records, now found at the National Archives.

    Beyond accomplishing the original goal of the cohabitation registration which was the formalizing of slave marriages, the kind of information recorded in the registers is invaluable today to genealogists and historians alike. The surviving Virginia cohabitation registers recorded the name of the husband, his age, place of birth, residence, occupation, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, the name of the wife, her age, place of birth, residence, last owner, last owner's city or county of residence, name of children with the ages of each, and the date of commencement of cohabitation.

    A second type of register is often grouped together with the cohabitation registers but provides solely for the legitimization of children whose parents are no longer living together. The official title of this document is Register of Children of Colored Persons…whose Parents had ceased to cohabit on 27th February 1866. These registers were maintained separately than those for still–married couples and far fewer of them are known to survive. The information recorded is nearly identical to that of the cohabitation registers with the exception of the notation whether the children's mother was at that time living or deceased.